When electrons are shared between two atoms, they make a bond called a covalent bond. Chemists frequently use Lewis diagrams to represent covalent bonding in molecular substances.
A covalent bond involves electrons being shared between atoms. The most stable state for an atom occurs when its valence electron shell is full, so atoms form covalent bonds, sharing their valence electrons, so that they achieve a more stable state by filling their valence electron shell.
Atoms will covalently bond with other atoms in order to gain more stability, which is gained by forming a full electron shell. By sharing their outer most (valence) electrons, atoms can fill up their outer electron shell and gain stability.
What is electron sharing?
Electron ‘sharing’ occurs when the electrons in the outermost electron shell, or valence shell electrons, from one atom can be used to complete the outermost electron shell of another atom without being permanently transferred, as occurs in the formation of an ion.
What type of bond are electrons transferred?
ionic bond, also called electrovalent bond, type of linkage formed from the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions in a chemical compound. Such a bond forms when the valence (outermost) electrons of one atom are transferred permanently to another atom.
S = N – A. S = shared electrons : total number of electrons that will be shared and therefore are the bonding electrons. Divide “S” by 2 and you’ll have the number of bonds (lines) in the structure.
Triple bonds occur when six electrons are shared between the two atoms and consist of one sigma bond and two pi bonds (see later concept for more info about pi and sigma bonds).
Shared pair: A pair of electrons which is shared with other atoms to form a bond is known as shared pair of electrons. For example in HCl the pair of electrons responsible for bond formation between H and Cl is called shared pair. Concept: The Covalent Bond.
To this end, we adopt a standard notation for each atom which displays the number of valence electrons in the unbonded atom explicitly. In this notation, carbon and hydrogen look like Figure 6.1, representing the single valence electron in hydrogen and the four valence electrons in carbon.
How are electrons transferred between atoms?
Ionic bonds form between two or more atoms by the transfer of one or more electrons between atoms. Electron transfer produces negative ions called anions and positive ions called cations. These ions attract each other.
A covalent bond consists of the mutual sharing of one or more pairs of electrons between two atoms. These electrons are simultaneously attracted by the two atomic nuclei. A covalent bond forms when the difference between the electronegativities of two atoms is too small for an electron transfer to occur to form ions.